Medicine & Public Health
Purpose Arylamine N -acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) deficiency has been associated with drug resistance and poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate drug resistance in vitro using normal breast cancer cell lines and NAT1-deficient cell lines to understand the changes induced by the lack of NAT1 that resulted in poor drug response. Methods The response to seven chemotherapeutic agents was quantified following NAT1 deletion using CRISPR-Cas 9 in MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells. Apoptosis was monitored by annexin V staining and caspase 3/7 activity. Cytochrome C release and caspase 8 and 9 activities were measured by Western blots. Caspase 8 was inhibited using Z-IETD-FMK and necroptosis was inhibited using necrostatin and necrosulfonamide. Results Compared to parental cells, NAT1 depleted cells were resistant to drug treatment. This could be reversed following NAT1 rescue of the NAT1 deleted cells. Release of cytochrome C in response to treatment was decreased in the NAT1 depleted cells, suggesting suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, NAT1 knockout resulted in a decrease in caspase 8 activation. Treatment with necrosulfonamide showed that NAT1 deficient cells switched from intrinsic apoptosis to necroptosis when treated with the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. Conclusions NAT1 deficiency can switch cell death from apoptosis to necroptosis resulting in decreased response to cytotoxic drugs. The absence of NAT1 in patient tumours may be a useful biomarker for selecting alternative treatments in a subset of breast cancer patients.
McAleese, Courtney E.,Butcher, Neville J.,Minchin, Rodney F., 2022, Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 deficiency inhibits drug-induced cell death in breast cancer cells: switch from cytochrome C-dependent apoptosis to necroptosis, Springer